Programming of Life
por Donald E. Johnson (136 páginas)
This book expands the information and its processing that was introduced in the “Probabilitiy’s Nature and Nature’s Probability” books (scientist and “Lite” versions). No proposed scenario so far has dealt in a feasible manner with this critical topic. The non-material reality of information is stressed, especially with respect to instantiated algorithms, controls, and symbolic codes. The book stresses an information science perspective, taking no stance on philosophical or theological issues that could be envisioned.
Probability’s Nature and Nature’s Probability: A Call to Scientific Integrity
por Donald E. Johnson (132 páginas)
The author once believed anyone not accepting the “proven” scenarios for chemical and biological evolution that were ingrained during his science education had the same mentality as someone believing in a flat earth. With continued scientific investigation, paying closer attention to actual data (rather than speculative conclusions), he began to doubt the natural explanations that had been so ingrained in a number of key areas including the origin and fine-tuning of mass and energy, the origin of life with its complex functional information, and the increase in functional complexity in living organisms. It was science, and not religion, that caused his disbelief in the explanatory powers of undirected nature using scientific-sounding concepts that in fact have no known scientific basis. Scientific integrity needs to be restored so that ideas that have no methods to test or falsify are not considered part of science. Too often “possible” is used by scientists without considering that “possible” has a scientific definition within the nature of probability. For example, one should not be able to get away with stating “it is possible that life arose from non-life by …” or “it’s possible that a different form of life exists elsewhere in the Universe” without first demonstrating that it is indeed possible (non-zero probability) using known science. This book reviews the many prevalent scenarios that are widely accepted, but need closer examination of their scientific validity. It will also examine the scientific validity of Intelligent Design (ID) as a model that can be empirically detected and examined. For example, the book uses known science (including Shannon, functional, and prescriptive information principles) to prove that it is impossible (zero probability) for life’s complex information system, with thousands of interacting computers in each cell, to have an undirected natural source. The usefulness of the ID model for furthering scientific inquiry is also analyzed. One chapter is devoted to exposing fallacies, presuppositions, and beliefs that attempt to prevent acceptance of ID as “science”.
The First Gene: The Birth of Programming, Messaging and Formal Control
por David L. Abel (123 páginas)
“The First Gene: The Birth of Programming, Messaging and Formal Control” is a peer-reviewed anthology of papers that focuses, for the first time, entirely on the following difficult scientific questions: *How did physics and chemistry write the first genetic instructions? *How could a prebiotic (pre-life, inanimate) environment consisting of nothing but chance and necessity have programmed logic gates, decision nodes, configurable-switch settings, and prescriptive information using a symbolic system of codons (three nucleotides per unit/block of code)? The codon table is formal, not physical. It has also been shown to be conceptually ideal. *How did primordial nature know how to write in redundancy codes that maximally protect information? *How did mere physics encode and decode linear digital instructions that are not determined by physical interactions? All known life is networked and cybernetic. “Cybernetics” is the study of various means of steering, organizing and controlling objects and events toward producing utility. The constraints of initial conditions and the physical laws themselves are blind and indifferent to functional success. Only controls, not constraints, steer events toward the goal of usefulness (e.g., becoming alive or staying alive). Life-origin science cannot advance until first answering these questions: *1-How does nonphysical programming arise out of physicality to then establish control over that physicality? *2-How did inanimate nature give rise to a formally-directed, linear, digital, symbol-based and cybernetic-rich life? *3-What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for turning physics and chemistry into formal controls, regulation, organization, engineering, and computational feats? “The First Gene” directly addresses these questions.
Beyond Intelligent Design: From an autonomous universe to a functional virtual reality
por Efthimios Harokopos (133 páginas)
Is our world autonomous or its existence requires another level of reality that acts in the background to bring about the phenomena? This is an intriguing question that has not been settled by science since the time that the Eleatic philosophers challenged the autonomy of the world 2,500 years ago. If our world is not autonomous, then there are significant implications regarding every aspect of our lives, including our science and religion. Non-autonomy would further imply that life did not emerge by chance but there is an underline intelligence that governs its creation and evolution. In essence, the possibility of a non-autonomous world directly challenges the consistency of modern evolution theory. The intelligent design vs. evolution debate is probably the most controversial one of our times. Beyond Intelligent Design approaches the notorious intelligent design doctrine from a novel perspective based on the virtual reality hypothesis and in a way that allows falsification through experimentation. Obscured facts regarding the foundations of classical but also of modern science are presented that challenge the autonomy of this world. The shaky foundations of modern science warrant the investigation of alternatives, such as theories that deny the autonomy of this world and corroborate the hypothesis of intelligent interaction, which in turn indirectly supports the intelligent design hypothesis. Beyond Intelligent Design takes the reader on a journey in time and space that starts in Elea, at around 550 BC. Elea was a small ancient Greek colony in the south of Italy. It is where the strongest blow to common scientific wisdom was ever delivered by a group of poets and philosophers against efforts to understand the world through observation, experimentation and inductive reasoning. Then, the book proceeds to reconcile the Eleatic arguments with the ideas expressed by Cartesian philosophers of the 17th century, discusses how Descartes, Newton and Leibniz dealt with them and then presents some of the foundational weaknesses of the most successful modern scientific theories, special relativity and quantum mechanics. Beyond Intelligent Design does not attempt to provide direct support to the intelligent design hypothesis but instead argues that science must not exclude alternatives theories, such as those that challenge the autonomy of this world, because such autonomy is not evident. More importantly, the book asserts that alternative theories about the emergence of the world and human life should be part of the educational curriculum because they can provide a balance to the cultivation of human values.
Being as Communion: A Metaphysics of Information
por William Dembski (236 páginas)
In Being as Communion: A Metaphysics of Information, noted mathematician and philosopher William Dembski challenges the oft-made claim that mind is a myth and that everything about us—including our thoughts, our ethics, and our decisions—are ultimately the products of unguided material processes. Dembski provocatively argues that the opposite is true: In light of modern information theory, it is materialism, not mind that is the “myth”. The capstone of a trilogy that includes The Design Inference and No Free Lunch, Being as Communion is already being hailed as “staggeringly original”, “brilliant”, and “a tour de force”.
For a thing to be real, it must be able to communicate with other things. If this is so, then the problem of being receives a straightforward resolution: to be is to be in communion. So the fundamental science, indeed the science that needs to underwrite all other sciences, is a theory of communication. Within such a theory of communication the proper object of study becomes not isolated particles but the information that passes between entities. In Being as Communion philosopher and mathematician William Dembski provides a non-technical overview of his work on information. Dembski attempts to make good on the promise of John Wheeler, Paul Davies, and others that information is poised to replace matter as the primary stuff of reality. With profound implications for theology and metaphysics, Being as Communion develops a relational ontology that is at once congenial to science and open to teleology in nature. All those interested in the intersections of theology, philosophy and science should read this book.
The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities
por William Dembski (264 páginas)
How can we identify events due to intelligent causes and distinguish them from events due to undirected natural causes? If we lack a causal theory how can we determine whether an intelligent cause acted? This book presents a reliable method for detecting intelligent causes: the design inference. The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating the key trademark of intelligent causes: specified events of small probability. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. This challenging and provocative book will be read with particular interest by philosophers of science and religion, other philosophers concerned with epistemology and logic, probability and complexity theorists, and statisticians.
No Free Lunch: Why Specified Complexity Cannot Be Purchased without Intelligence
por William Dembski (432 páginas)
Darwin’s greatest accomplishment was to show how life might be explained as the result of natural selection. But does Darwin’s theory mean that life was unintended? William A. Dembski argues that it does not. As the leading proponent of intelligent design, Dembski reveals a designer capable of originating the complexity and specificity found throughout the cosmos. Scientists and theologians alike will find this book of interest as it brings the question of creation firmly into the realm of scientific debate. The paperback is updated with a new Preface by the author.
The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design
por William Dembski (324 páginas)
Is it science? Is it religion? What exactly is the Design Revolution? Today scientists, mathematicians and philosophers in the intelligent design movement are challenging a certain view of science–one that limits its investigations and procedures to purely law-like and mechanical explanations. They charge that there is no scientific reason to exclude the consideration of intelligence, agency and purpose from truly scientific research. In fact, they say, the practice of science often does already include these factors! As the intelligent design movement has gained momentum, questions have naturally arisen to challenge its provocative claims. In this book William A. Dembski rises to the occasion clearly and concisely answering the most vexing questions posed to the intelligent design program. Writing with nonexperts in mind, Dembski responds to more than sixty questions asked by experts and nonexperts alike who have attended his many public lectures, as well as objections raised in written reviews. The Design Revolution has begun. Its success depends on how well it answers the questions of its detractors. Read this book and you’ll have a good idea of the prospects and challenges facing this revolution in scientific thinking.
Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed
por Douglas Axe (304 páginas)
Throughout his distinguished and unconventional career, engineer-turned-molecular-biologist Douglas Axe has been asking the questions that much of the scientific community would rather silence. Now, he presents his conclusions in this brave and pioneering book. Axe argues that the key to understanding our origin is the “design intuition”—the innate belief held by all humans that tasks we would need knowledge to accomplish can only be accomplished by someone who has that knowledge. For the ingenious task of inventing life, this knower can only be God.
Starting with the hallowed halls of academic science, Axe dismantles the widespread belief that Darwin’s theory of evolution is indisputably true, showing instead that a gaping hole has been at its center from the beginning. He then explains in plain English the science that proves our design intuition scientifically valid. Lastly, he uses everyday experience to empower ordinary people to defend their design intuition, giving them the confidence and courage to explain why it has to be true and the vision to imagine what biology will become when people stand up for this truth.
Armed with that confidence, readers will affirm what once seemed obvious to all of us—that living creatures, from single-celled cyanobacteria to orca whales and human beings, are brilliantly conceived, utterly beyond the reach of accident.
Our intuition was right all along.
Evolution: Still a Theory in Crisis
por Michael Denton (354 páginas)
More than thirty years after his landmark book Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1985), biologist Michael Denton revisits his earlier thesis about the inability of Darwinian evolution to explain the history of life. He argues that there remains “an irresistible consilience of evidence for rejecting Darwinian cumulative selection as the major driving force of evolution”. From the origin of life to the origin of human language, the great divisions in the natural order are still as profound as ever, and they are still unsupported by the series of adaptive transitional forms predicted by Darwin. In addition, Denton makes a provocative new argument about the pervasiveness of non-adaptive order throughout biology, order that cannot be explained by the Darwinian mechanism.
The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism
por Michael Behe (336 páginas)
When Michael J. Behe’s first book, Darwin’s Black Box, was published in 1996, it launched the intelligent design movement. Critics howled, yet hundreds of thousands of readers — and a growing number of scientists — were intrigued by Behe’s claim that Darwinism could not explain the complex machinery of the cell.
Now, in his long-awaited follow-up, Behe presents far more than a challenge to Darwinism: He presents the evidence of the genetics revolution — the first direct evidence of nature’s mutational pathways — to radically redefine the debate about Darwinism.
How much of life does Darwin’s theory explain? Most scientists believe it accounts for everything from the machinery of the cell to the history of life on earth. Darwin’s ideas have been applied to law, culture, and politics.
But Darwin’s theory has been proven only in one sense: There is little question that all species on earth descended from a common ancestor. Overwhelming anatomical, genetic, and fossil evidence exists for that claim. But the crucial question remains: How did it happen? Darwin’s proposed mechanism — random mutation and natural selection — has been accepted largely as a matter of faith and deduction or, at best, circumstantial evidence. Only now, thanks to genetics, does science allow us to seek direct evidence. The genomes of many organisms have been sequenced, and the machinery of the cell has been analyzed in great detail. The evolutionary responses of microorganisms to antibiotics and humans to parasitic infections have been traced over tens of thousands of generations.
As a result, for the first time in history Darwin’s theory can be rigorously evaluated. The results are shocking. Although it can explain marginal changes in evolutionary history, random mutation and natural selection explain very little of the basic machinery of life. The “edge” of evolution, a line that defines the border between random and nonrandom mutation, lies very far from where Darwin pointed. Behe argues convincingly that most of the mutations that have defined the history of life on earth have been nonrandom.
Although it will be controversial and stunning, this finding actually fits a general pattern discovered by other branches of science in recent decades: The universe as a whole was fine-tuned for life. From physics to cosmology to chemistry to biology, life on earth stands revealed as depending upon an endless series of unlikely events. The clear conclusion: The universe was designed for life.
A Caixa Preta De Darwin: O Desafio Da Bioquímica À Teoria Da Evolução
por Michael Behe (304 páginas)
A teoria da evolução de Darwin é em geral aceita pelos cientistas. Contudo, desde que Watson e Crick abriram o campo da bioquímica, a ciência vem vivendo um clima de frustração, tentando conciliar as descobertas espantosas desse campo moderno com uma teoria do século XX que não pode explicá-las. Com a publicação de A caixa preta de Darwin, é tempo de os cientistas se permitirem examinar novas e extraordinárias possibilidades, e de ficarmos de sobreaviso com o que vão descobrir.
Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design
por Stephen Meyer (624 páginas)
“Signature in the Cell is a defining work in the discussion of life’s origins and the question of whether life is a product of unthinking matter or of an intelligent mind. For those who disagree with ID, the powerful case Meyer presents cannot be ignored in any honest debate. For those who may be sympathetic to ID, on the fence, or merely curious, this book is an engaging, eye-opening, and often eye-popping read” — American Spectator
Named one of the top books of 2009 by the Times Literary Supplement (London), this controversial and compelling book from Dr. Stephen C. Meyer presents a convincing new case for intelligent design (ID), based on revolutionary discoveries in science and DNA. Along the way, Meyer argues that Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution as expounded in The Origin of Species did not, in fact, refute ID. If you enjoyed Francis Collins’s The Language of God, you’ll find much to ponder—about evolution, DNA, and intelligent design—in Signature in the Cell.
Signature of Controversy: Responses to Critics of Signature in the Cell
por David Klinghoffer (143 páginas)
Signature of Controversy is a response to the 2009 bestseller Signature in the Cell by Stephen C. Meyer, a book recognized as establishing one of the strongest pillars underlying the argument for intelligent design. To call Signature in the Cell important is an understatement. The critical response that followed the publication of Stephen Meyer’s book was fascinating, but the fact is that few—if any—of the critics really grappled with the crux of Meyer’s argument or with the substance of intelligent-design theory. This is remarkable and telling. In Signature of Controversy, defenders of intelligent design analyze the hostile response using the critics’ own writings.
Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design
por Stephen Meyer (560 páginas)
When Charles Darwin finished The Origin of Species, he thought that he had explained every clue, but one. Though his theory could explain many facts, Darwin knew that there was a significant event in the history of life that his theory did not explain. During this event, the “Cambrian explosion,” many animals suddenly appeared in the fossil record without apparent ancestors in earlier layers of rock.
In Darwin’s Doubt, Stephen C. Meyer tells the story of the mystery surrounding this explosion of animal life—a mystery that has intensified, not only because the expected ancestors of these animals have not been found, but because scientists have learned more about what it takes to construct an animal. During the last half century, biologists have come to appreciate the central importance of biological information—stored in DNA and elsewhere in cells—to building animal forms.
Expanding on the compelling case he presented in his last book, Signature in the Cell, Meyer argues that the origin of this information, as well as other mysterious features of the Cambrian event, are best explained by intelligent design, rather than purely undirected evolutionary processes.
Debating Darwin’s Doubt: A Scientific Controversy That Can No Longer Be Denied
por David Klinghoffer (123 páginas)
In 2013 Stephen Meyer’s book Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design became a national bestseller, provoking a wide-ranging debate about the adequacy of Darwinian theory to explain life’s history. In Debating Darwin’s Doubt: A Scientific Controversy that Can No Longer Be Denied, leading scholars in the intelligent design community respond to critiques of Meyer’s book and show that the core challenge posed by Meyer remains unanswered: Where did the influx of information essential to the creation of new body plans come from? In addition to ten chapters by Stephen Meyer, Debating Darwin’s Doubt also includes contributions from biologists Richard Sternberg, Douglas Axe, and Ann Gauger; philosopher of biology Paul Nelson; mathematicians William Dembski and David Berlinski; and Center for Science and Culture research coordinator Casey Luskin. In forty-four chapters, these contributing authors explore topics such as orphan genes, cladistics, small shelly fossils, protein evolution, the length of the Cambrian explosion, the God-of-the-Gaps objection to intelligent design, and criticisms raised by proponents of theistic evolution. Anyone who wants to understand the cutting-edge of current scientific debates over modern Darwinian theory needs to read this book.
Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life
por Hubert Yockey (272 páginas)
Information Theory, Evolution and the Origin of Life presents a timely introduction to the use of information theory and coding theory in molecular biology. The genetical information system, because it is linear and digital, resembles the algorithmic language of computers. George Gamow pointed out that the application of Shannon’s information theory breaks genetics and molecular biology out of the descriptive mode into the quantitative mode and Dr Yockey develops this theme, discussing how information theory and coding theory can be applied to molecular biology. He discusses how these tools for measuring the information in the sequences of the genome and the proteome are essential for our complete understanding of the nature and origin of life. The author writes for the computer competent reader who is interested in evolution and the origins of life.
In the Beginning Was Information
por Werner Gitt (264 páginas)
Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don’t often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer: Do we take for granted the presence of information that organizes every part of the human body, from hair color to the way internal organs work? What is the origin of all our complicated data? How is it that information in our ordered universe is organized and processed? Gitt explains the necessity of information – and more importantly, the need for an Organizer and Originator of that information. The huge amount of information present in just a small amount of DNA alone refutes the possibility of a non-intelligent beginning for life. It all points to a Being who not only organizes biological data, but also cares for the creation.
por Werner Gitt (352 páginas)
With his co-authors, information scientist Dr Werner Gitt provides the most rigorous and useful definition of information thus far. He distinguishes this Universal Information (real information) from things often mistakenly called information, and shows how ultimately all biological information comes from God. Gitt’s evangelist heart also shines through this academically rigorous work. The author is Werner Gitt, in cooperation with Bob Compton & Jorge Fernandez.
Science’s Blind Spot: The Unseen Religion of Scientific Naturalism
por Cornelius Hunter (176 páginas)
Had evolutionists been in charge, they wouldn’t have made the mosquito, planetary orbits would align perfectly, and the human eye would be better designed. But they tend to gloss over their own failed predictions and faulty premises. Naturalists see Darwin’s theories as “logical” and that’s enough. To think otherwise brands you a heretic to all things wise and rational. Science’s Blind Spot takes the reader on an enlightening journey through the ever-evolving theory of evolution. Cornelius G. Hunter goes head-to-head with those who twist textbooks, confuse our children, and reject all challengers before they can even speak. This fascinating, fact-filled resource opens minds to nature in a way that both seeks and sees the intelligent design behind creation’s masterpieces.
Science and Human Origins
por Ann Gauger, Douglas Axe e Casey Luskin (126 páginas)
Science & Human Origins, a provocative book from Discovery Institute Press, boldly addresses some of the most popular evolutionary arguments pertaining to controversial claims that humans and apes are related through common ancestry.